Family support, main reason for migration from poor neighbourhoods
20/11/2020 14:38, TUNIS/Tunisia
(TAP) - A survey published on Friday by the Tunisian Forum for Economic and Social Rights (FTDES), conducted in partnership with the Lawyers Without Borders, revealed that family support would be the main reason for the departure of migrants from rather underprivileged neighbourhoods, whereas the acquisition of houses and better living conditions explain the departure of migrants from rather well-off neighbourhoods.

As part of this survey entitled "Social Thought and Resonance with Vilent Extremism," a questionnaire was conducted among 805 youths aged between 18 and 30 from four neighbourhoods of Greater Tunis: Kabaria, Sidi Hassine, El Mourouj and El Menzah, and three focus groups with youths from these neighbourhoods.

These neighbourhoods were selected with the aim to work on two types of structured and non-structured neighbourhoods of Tunis.

According to the same source, the support of the family is the main reason behind the departure of migrants from El Mourouj, Kabaria and Sidi Hassine neighbourhoods, while buying a house and better living conditions are behind the departure of migrants from El Menzah neighbourhood.

This means that in the first three neighbourhoods, going abroad is a kind of family obligation, an imposed choice, whereas for the population of El Menzah, going abroad is rather a kind of voluntary choice.

The living conditions in these neighbourhoods are studied through various data such as the level of education, access to communication means, unemployment and others.

In fact, the survey shows that almost half of the population of El Menzah (49.2%) have reached higher education, which can only be explained by their wealthy situation.This is not the case for the other neighbourhoods where the rate is 23.9% in El Mourouj and is only 14% in Kabaria and 7% in Sidi Hassine.

This is also the case for the primary education level, with higher rates of 22.3%, 28.9% and 37.3% in El Mourouj, Kabaria and Sidi Hassine, respectively, against only 13% in El Menzah.

The same pattern is reported among those who have never been to school: 15.6% in Sidi Hassine and 12.3% in Kabaria, but only 5.5% and 4.5% in El Mourouj and El Menzah, respectively.

As for access to internet, El Menzah and El Mourouj have the highest rates (77.73% and 64.23%, respectively), while in poor neighbourhoods these rates are relatively low (48.68 in Kabaria and 34.49% in Sidi Hassine).

According to these educational characteristics, the living conditions do determine, to a very large extent, the following ranking of the four neighbourhoods: El Menzah, El Mourouj, Kabaria and Sidi Hassine.
This means that the best ranked neighbourhoods are those where there is less poverty and, as a result, educational conditions are better.

Thus, in El Menzah, 7 out of 10 employed people have a university degree, while in Sidi Hassine, only 1 out of 10 employed people has a university degree.
For the neighbourhoods of Sidi Hassine, Kabaria and El Mourouj, the highest proportion of the employed population has secondary education level (4 out of 10 employed).

It is El Menzah which is characterised by a particularly low unemployment rate, while Kabaria has the highest unemployment rate of 18.41, while the national average is 15.50%. In other words, the level of unemployment in a neighbourhood is often a credible and significant index to characterise the economic and social situation in that neighbourhood.

In this comparative analysis, four neighbourhoods with different socio-economic indicators are considered. However, it can be noticed that between these neighbourhoods there are similarities as well as very clear differences.

The El Menzah neighbourhood is the best off, followed by El Mourouj with average living conditions. But it is in Kabaria and especially in Sidi Hassine that the socio-economic conditions are the most difficult.

Although it is clear that the level of poverty and marginalisation of these neighbourhoods' population could explain the tendency to violence, it is rather wrong to establish a direct cause-effect relationship between the difficult living conditions and the violent extremism practice.

The thesis is that difficult economic and social conditions alone cannot be the triggering factors for engaging in violent extremism. Nevertheless, these conditions can be perceived by young people as a source of marginalisation and thus violence against them.
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